To be a distinguished center in parasitological research, providing high quality research at both diagnostic and treatment levels


 To provide a high quality of diagnostic laboratory service in an effective and timely manner in addition to develop new diagnostic techniques for endemic parasitic diseases 

  Head of the Laboratory

 Prof. Ibrahim R. Aly Shalash                                                 


  Former Heads And Staff Members

Former Heads

Emeritus Prof. Hessien El Nahal 

Emeritus Prof. Soad Ismail     

Emeritus Prof. Nemait Amr 

Emeritus Prof. Hoda Yakoub Sabry 

Emeritus Prof. Maisa Ahmed Shalaby 

Staff Members

Emeritus Prof.  Amal Mohamed Abdou

Emeritus Prof. Fatem Ramzy Guirguis

Emeritus Prof. Soheir Sayed Mohammed Mahmoud

Emeritus Prof. Zeinab Hassanien Fahmy

Emeritus Prof. Mohamed Abdel Gayid

Emeritus Prof. Eman Aly Muostafa

Emeritus Assistant.Prof. Wafaa Mohamed Abdel Fatah

Emeritus Assistant.Prof. Eman Ahmed Hassan

Prof. Nevine Guirguis Nessim

Prof. Samia William Abdel Sayed

Prof. Tarek Mahmoud Diab

Ass.Prof. Gehan Labib Hafez

Ass.Prof. Azza Moustafa Fahmy

Ass.Prof. Rabab El-Sayed Mohamed

Ass. Lecturer: Shimaa Shaker

Ass. Lecturer: Hagar Fathy

Ass. Lecturer: Eman EL-Shabrawy

Ass. Lecturer: Shimaa Fouad

Ass. Lecturer: Mena El Rahman Ahmed Fahmy

Specialist: Al-Zahraa Mosallam Awadallah

Specialist: Reem Ahmed El Sheik

Specialist: May Abdel Wehab Mohamed

Specialist: Shaimaa Fathy Foud

Specialist: Pola Robil Michael

Specialist: Noran Abd El Nasser Al Brolos

Specialist: Maha Taalat El Hanafy Mahmoud

  Field of Research

The parasitology department focuses on:

a.Implementation and update of diagnostic techniques in managing endemic parasitic infections and their complications.

b- Evaluation and monitoring of drug efficacies and emergence of resistance

c- Development of new candidate vaccines against parasites.

d- Implications of molecular techniques in medical parasitological studies.

e- Utilization of nanotechonology in various research fields.

  Main Achievements

      a. Three innovative prototypes were submitted to the Egypian Patency Office, Academy of Scientfic Research and Technology:

The establishment of a nano-chip as a rapid and multiple detector to diagnose parasites. Patency is pending (submitted in 2017, no. 837). PI: Prof. Ibrahim R. Aly




      Web-based Diagnosis of parasitic diseases using I-Phone. Temporary patency is issued(submitted in 2016, no. 16). PI: Associate Prof. Gehan Labib Hafez, Associate Prof. Rabab Sayed Zalat and Prof. Dr. Ibrahim Aly


    Preparation of Single-domain antibodies and graphene coated magnetic metal nanoparticles. Patency is pending (submitted in 2015, no. 14/235). PI: Prof. Ibrahim R. Aly

b.       Identification, characterization and preparation of target antigens of different parasites of medical importance and using them in both diagnosis and treatment of these parasites.

c.      Evaluation of newly introduced  drugs and purified plant extracts as antiparasitic agents

d.       Application of newly introduced molecular techniques in the diagnosis of endemic parasites


  Running Techniques

  • Services

A. Routine urine and stool microscopic examinations using different parasitological techniques.

B. Introduction of special new techniques for stool analysis as parasep faecal concentration technique including

  • Diagnosis and identification of different opportunistic protozoa in stool samples using different staining techniques including Zeihl Neelsen, Modified acid fast, Trichrome and modified trichrome as well as Safranine stains.

  • Performing special staining methods or culture media for detection of newly emerging protozoa (D. fragilis & B. hominis) as Giemsa stain

  • Applying special stains for detection of protozoa as Safranine Stain & Auramine Rhodamine  Stains.

D. Field surveys using specific parasitological techniques including nucleopore filtration of urine for S. haematobium ova, Kato technique for different parasitic ova in stool and Negrosine technique for different parasitic ova in stool.

E. Diagnosis of different parasites and protozoa in stool samples using immunoparasitological assays (our lab prepared assays or newly introduced kits) including:-

  • ELISA kits for detection of circulating parasitic antigens in patients' sera as well as copro-antigens in patients' stool Merifluor immunofluorescent stain.

  • Applying a modified method for the direct wet mount preparation for better and clear identification of parasites.

F. Periodic parasitological examination of personnel and workers in different labs, especially those subjected to contamination with biological materials.

  • Research               

A. Standard experimental parasitological examinations to measure the intensity of schistosomal infection and morbidity including:

  • Worm perfusion to count the number of worms present in liver and intestine of infected mice.

  • Ova count in tissues (liver and intestine)

  • Oogram pattern (counting different developmental stages of the parasites' ova in small intestine.

B. Identification, characterization and preparation of target antigens of different parasites of  medical  importance  in large amounts  using  molecular  biological tools and applying it in:-

  • Development of simple, sensitive, less time consuming and cheap kits using nanotechnology for diagnosis of different multiple parasites (as ELISA plate, coated by different antigens) (screening test).

  • Production of highly sensitive and specific antibodies against these target antigens using phage display technique and applying it in diagnostic kits.

  • Development of candidate vaccines.

  • Production of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system for targeting of parasitic infections.

  • Development of a quick diagnostic strip kit for field surveys (running) from rabbits, on strip or ring, for the detection of Copro-antigens of different parasites (Schistosoma and Fasciola to start with..) could be applied commercially.

C. Tissue culture unit which is used in:-

  • In vitro culture of parasites for immunolocalization studies

  • Maintenance of life cycle of some parasites and protozoa (Schistosoma, Toxoplasma, Cryptospordium and Blastocystis) and production of target antigens and biological materials secreted from these parasites.

  • Evaluation of antiparasitic efficacy of newly introduced drugs and plant extracts as well as classical drug treatment either alone or combined with other materials including anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic agents, natural and newly introduced synthetic compounds.

  • Evaluation of different vaccines against parasites

  Laboratory Structure and Facilities

The department consists of two research laboratories and one outpatient clinic laboratory equipped with basic facilities for parasitological tests including laminar flow, water purification system, water bath, perfusion system, balances, centrifuge, PCR device, FTIR-Spectroscopy, SDS-Electrophoresis, Immunoblot, binocular light microscope, digital microscope, florescent microscope, stereo microscope, CO2 incubator and Electroborator. 

  Training facilities

a. Annual training program for laboratory personnels working on the diagnosis of parasitic diseases.

b. Two weeks rotation program in the outpatient parasitology lab for Faculty of Medicine and Science undergraduate students.

c.  Annual teaching of parasitology course for TBRI nursing school students.

  Scope of Services

The policy of the department is to analyze urine and stool samples of immuncompetent and immunocomprornised patients using different parasitological techniques for both inpatients and outpatients. Also, to perform monthly statistical analysis for data.

The scope of services offered by the department focus on:

a. Gastrointestinal diseases, urinary tract infections, Some blood stream parasites (e.g. toxoplasma), Fever of unknown origin, Post-surgical parasitic infections as well as infections related to compromised immunity in hepatic and chronic renal patients.

b.  Monitoring of drug efficacy and emergence of drug resistance parasitic isolates (strains) including Schistosomiasis mansoni and hematobium, Fascioliasis (hepatica and gigantica) and Protozoa e.g., Entamebia species (histolytica and dispar).


    ·  Internal research projects:

Nanoparticles as a drug delivery system for targeting of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis. PI: Prof. Ibrahim Aly (2011)

The pathophysiological variability of different Blastocystis hominis isolates in experimental animals. PI: Prof. Soad Ismail (2013)

Evaluation of some herbal Egyptian plants in treatment of some protozoal infections in experimental animals. PI:  Prof. Naimat Amer (2013)

Blastocystis hominis: Diagnosis, genomic analysis and in vitro treatment, with impact on the pathophysiological variability of different Blastocystis hominis isolates in experimental animals. PI: Prof. Soad Ismail (2014)

Novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools in marine models of hepato cellar   carcinoma a pilot study. PI: Prof. Eman El-Ahwany (2015)

Efficacy of the anti-parasitic agents mefloquine against schistosomiasis: in-vivo study. PI: Prof. Soad Ismail (2015)

Detection of infective stages of medically important parasites contaminating water bodies. PI: Prof. Sohair Sayed Mohammed (2016)

Effect of synthetic and natural agents on molecularly characterized cryptosporidium species: an experimental model. PI: Prof. Hoda Sabry (2016)

Potential role of Cryptosporidium in triggering intestinal neoplasia in a mouse model. PI: Prof. Maisa Ahmed Shalaby (2016)

Molecular and Immunohistochemical detection of Cryptosporidium-induced intestinal tissue alterations in dexamethasone treated &untreated mice. PI:  Prof. Naimat Amer (2016) 


      · External Projects:    

 American University in Cairo: Nanoparticles as a delivery system for targeting Schistosomiasis and Fascioliasis: A pilot study using Nanotechnology and bioinformatics. PI: Prof. Suher Zada (2010)

El- Jameel center for Science and Technology & the American University in Cairo: Cloning expression of target antigen (Cathepsin L1&L2) from Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola giganticaPI: Prof. Suher Zada (2010)

Project STDF, ID 1454: Development of production and pegylation of interferon alpha. PI: Prof. Ehab El-Dabaa Mohammed Sabry (2010)

Egyptian and French Collaboration project (Lyon University): Development and evaluation of immunoblot and immunochromatography test kits for the diagnosis of helminthic infections in Egypt. PI: Prof. Ibrahim Rabie (2011)

Ministry of Scientific research: Nanotechnology based drug delivery for treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. PI: Prof. Mohammed Abbas Shemis (2011).

American University in Cairo: Treg cells, a new lymphocyte subpopulation with a key role in the immuno response against Schistosoma mansoni infection. PI: Prof. Suher Zada (2014) 

A novel Nanotechnology based approach for the rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases using multiple nano- chip. PI: Prof. Ibrahim Rabie (2017)


 Nagy FM, Rabia I, EL-Kersh WM (2010) Home-made monoclonal antibody–based sandwich ELISA versus commercial fast dot-ELISA technique in the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis and fascioliasis. NewYork Science Journal, 3:89-97

Rabia I, El-Ahwany E, El-Komy W, Nagy F (2010). Immunomodulation of Hepatic Morbidity in Murine Schistosomiasis mansoni Using Fatty Acid Binding Protein Journal of American Science, 6

Rabia I, Nagy F, Ali E, Mohamed A, El-Assal F, El-Amir A (2010). OL-037 Effect of treatment with antifibrotic drugs in combination with PZQ in immunized Schistosoma mansoni infected murine model. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 14:S16-S17

Kamel E, El-Emam M, Mahmoud S, Fouda F, Bayaumy F (2010). Attenuation of Schistosoma mansoni cercarial infectivity to albino mice by methanol extract of some plant species. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 98:342-348

SH IRM, Demerdash Z, Diab T, Maher K, Safwat W, Shaker Z (2010). Anti-S. mansoni mAb-based latex agglutination: a reliable field applicable immunodiagnostic test for screening of active human schistosomiasis. Journal of American Science, 6

Ramzy F, Mahmoud S, William S (2010). Further assessment of Mirazid as antischistosomal drug in experimental schistosomiasis hematobium. Pharmaceutical biology, 48:775-779

Draz HM, Mahmoud SS, Ashour E, Shaker YM, Wu CH, Wu GY (2010). Effects of PEG-interferon-alpha-2A on Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice. Journal of Parasitology 96:703-708

Diab TM, Mansour HH, Mahmoud SS (2010). Fasciola gigantica: parasitological and scanning electron microscopy study of the in vitro effects of ivermectin and/or artemether. Experimental parasitology 124:279-284

Aly IR, Hendawy MA, Ali E, Hassan E, Nosseir MM (2010). Immunological and parasitological parameters after treatment with dexamethasone in murine Schistosoma mansoni. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 105:729-735

Hassan S, Moussa H, Fahmy Z, Mohamed A (2010). PP-193 In vitro evaluation of medium-chain saturated fatty acid (dodecanoic acid) on Blastocystis hominis. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 14:S84.

Demerdash ZA et al. (2011). Diagnostic efficacy of monoclonal antibody based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of Fasciola gigantica excretory/secretory antigens in both serum and stool. Parasites & vectors 4:176

Kamel E, El-Emam M, Mahmoud S, Fouda F, Bayaumy F (2011). Parasitological and biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with methanol extract from the plants Chenopodium ambrosioides, Conyza dioscorides and Sesbania sesban. Parasitology International, 60:388-392

Diab TM, Rabia I, Komy WE, Amir AE (2011). Efficacy of sandwich and Dot-ELISA in diagnosis of fascioliasis using a pair of polyclonal antibodies against cathepsin L antigen in naturally infected sheep. Research Journal of Parasitology, 6:90-100

Aly I, Kamel R, Mahmoud S, Madboly N (2011). PP-189 Evaluation of the anthelmintic effects of artemether against experimental Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice using different time periods of treatment. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 15:S97

Aly IR, Diab M, El-Amir A, Hendawy M, Kadry S (2012). Fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein (FABP) as a prophylactic agent against Schistosoma mansoni infection in CD1 mice. The Korean journal of parasitology, 50:37

Yousif F et al. (2012). Contribution to in vitro screening of Egyptian plants for schistosomicidal activity. Pharmaceutical biology 50:732-739

El Ridi R, Tallima H, Salah M, Aboueldahab M, Fahmy OM, Al-Halbosiy MF, Mahmoud SS (2012). Efficacy and mechanism of action of arachidonic acid in the treatment of hamsters infected with Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma hematobium. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 39:232-239

Liu H, William S, Herdtweck E, Botros S, Dömling A (2012). MCR synthesis of praziquantel derivatives. Chemical biology & drug design, 79:470-477

Mahfouz A, Rabee I, El Amir A (2012). Evaluation of different immunological techniques for diagnosis of schistosomiasis haematobium in Egypt. Biotechnology, 11:10-19

Mantawy M, Aly H, Zayed N, Fahmy Z (2012). Antioxidant and schistosomicidal effect of Allium sativum and Allium cepa against Schistosoma mansoni different stages. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, 16:69-80

El Sayed I, Ramzy F, William S, El Bahanasawy M, El-Sattar MMA (2012). Neocryptolepine analogues containing N-substituted side-chains at C-11: synthesis and antischistosomicidal activity. Medicinal Chemistry Research, 21:4219-4229

Kamel D, Farid A, Ali E, Rabia I, Hendawy M, Amir E (2013). Diagnostic potential of target Giardia lamblia specific antigen for detection of human giardiasis using coproantigen sandwich ELISA. World Journal of Medical Sciences, 9:113-122

Saber M, Diab T, Hammam O, Karim A, Medhat A, Khela M, El-Dabaa E (2013). Protective and anti-pathology effects of Sm fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase-based DNA vaccine against Schistosoma mansoni by changing route of injection. The Korean journal of parasitology, 51:155

El Amir A (2013). Reductase: 1-Evaluation of its Role in Sehistosomiasis Diagnosis in Human. Journal of Medical Sciences, 13:635-646

Demerdash Z, Mohamed S, Hendawy M, Rabia I, Attia M, Shaker Z, Diab TM (2013). Monoclonal antibody-based dipstick assay: a reliable field applicable technique for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection using human serum and urine samples. The Korean journal of parasitology, 51:93

Abou-Elhakam HMA, Bauomy IR, El Deeb SO, El Amir AM (2013). Immunodiagnosis of fascioliasis using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Fasciola gigantica paramyosin antigen. Tropical Parasitology, 3:44

Allam G, Bauomy I, Hemyeda Z, Diab T, Sakran T (2013). Diagnostic potential of Fasciola gigantica-derived 14.5 kDa fatty acid binding protein in the immunodiagnosis of bubaline fascioliasis. Journal of Helminthology, 87:147-153

Aly HF, Mantawy MM, Fahamy ZH, Rizk MZ (2013). Effect of Zingiber officinal (ginger) and Glycyrrhiza uralensis (licorice) on experimental S. mansoni life cycle and investing the composition (metabolites) changes in different tissues. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 7:1481-1493

Aly I, Bayoumy EM, El Enain G, Mahgoub A (2013). Protective Role of Purified Somatic, Excretory and Secretory Antigens from Adult Echinostoma liei Against Infection of Schistosoma mansoni. World Journal of Medical Sciences, 9:36-42

Bayoumy EM, ElEnain G, Mahgoub A, Zalat R, Aly I (2013). Evaluation of Fasciola gigantica Metacercarial Antigens for Early Diagnosis of Fascioliasis in Sheep. World Journal of Medical Sciences, 9:128-135

Farid A, Malek AA, Rabie I, Helmy A, El AA (2013). Overview on cysteine protease inhibitors as chemotherapy for Schistosomiasis mansoni in mice and also its effect on the parasitological and immunological profile. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 16:1849-1861

Aly I, Zalat R, El Aswad B, Moharm IM, Masoud BM, Diab T (2013). Novel nanomagnetic beads based-latex agglutination assay for rapid diagnosis of human schistosomiasis haematobium. International Journal of Medical Health and Biomedical Pharmceutical Engineering, 7:642-647

Aly I, Zalat R, ElEnain GA, Mahgoub A, Hendawy M (2014). Home-Made Western Blot Assay Versus Commercial Fast Dot-ELISA Technique in the Diagnosis of Human Toxoplasmosis. World Journal of Medical Sciences, 11:237-243

William S, Saad A, Abdou A (2014). Potential antischistosomal activities of some Egyptian native plants using Schistosoma mansoni worm killing assay. Global Journal of Pharmacology, 8:237-244

Aly EM, Sabry HY, Fahmy ZH, Zalat RS (2014). Efficacy of combination therapy (metronidazole and/or artemether) in experimental giardiasis and its impact on nonenzymatic oxidative stress biomarkers. Parasitologists United Journal, 7:68

Aly I, Gehan E, Ismail M, Mohamed H, Ashraf E, Azza F (2014). Evaluation of a fatty acid binding protein and cysteine proteinase antigens of Fasciola gigantica for serodiagnosis of fasciolosis. World Journal of Medical Sciences, 11:590-599

Fahmy SR, Rabia I, Mansour EM (2014). The potential role of mefloquine against Schistosoma mansoni infection by prohibition of hepatic oxidative stress in mice. The Journal of Basic and Applied Zoology, 67:40-47

Fahmy ZH, Aly E, Mohamed AH (2014). The effect of medium chain saturated fatty acid (monolaurin) on levels of the cytokines on experimental animal in Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia infection. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 8:106-114

El-Aal AAA et al. (2015). Genomic instability in complicated and uncomplicated Egyptian schistosomiasis haematobium patients. Molecular cytogenetics, 8:1

El-Emam MAW, Mahmoud SS, Fatma E (2015). Potential role of mefloquine (antimalarial drug) and methanol extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Sesbania sesban in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Diseases, 5:608-613

Abdel-Monaem G, Farid A, Rabia I, El-Amir A (2015). Evaluation of Echinostoma liei worm, metacercaria and redia antigens for schistosomiasis control. Experimental Parasitology, 157:23-29

Fahmy ZH, Aly E, Hammam O (2015). The role of artemether as a possible drug for treatment Blastocystis hominis infection: In vivo and in vitro studies. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 9:893-899

Abdel-Ghany R et al. (2015). Blockade of PGE2, PGD2 receptors confers protection against prepatent Schistosomiasis mansoni in mice. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology 45:511-520

Hegazy S, Farid A, Rabae I, El-Amir A (2015). Novel IMB-ELISA assay for rapid diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis using SAG1 antigen. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, 68:474-480

Abou-Shady OM, Mohammed SS, Attia SS, Yusuf H-AS, Helmy DO (2015). In vitro effect of mefloquine on adult Schistosoma mansoni. Parasitology, 10:111-119

Bauomi I, El-Amir A, Fahmy A, Zalat R, Diab T (2015). Evaluation of purified 27.5 kDa protoscolex antigen-based ELISA for the detection of circulating antigens and antibodies in sheep and human hydatidosis. Journal of Helminthology, 89:577-583

Abdel-Ghaffar F, Ahmed AK, Bakry F, Rabei I, Ibrahim A (2016) The impact of three herbicides on biological and histological aspects of Biomphalaria alexandrina, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Malacologia, 59:197-210

Abou-Elhakam HM, Farid AA, Mahana NA, Bauiomy IR, Elameer AM (2016). Dot-Elisa as a Field Test for Hydatid Diagnosis. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 240:1-12

Abou-Shady OM, Mohammed SS, Attia SS, Yusuf H-AS, Helmy DO (2016). Therapeutic effect of mefloquine on Schistosoma mansoni in experimental infection in mice. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 40:259-267

Aly I (2016). Effective diagnosis of Hhydatidosis (Echinococcosis granulosus) by immunomagnetic bead ELISA technique using paramagnetic nanoparticles International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 45:150

Aly I, El Enain, G, Hamad RS, EL-Komy W, EL-Faramay M (2016). Assessment of immunological, parasitological and histopathological parameters after treatment with combined therapy against Cryptosporidium parvum. International Journal of Biology, Pharmacy and Allied Sciences, 5:2730-2745

Aly I, Taher EE, Hoda E-S, Mohammed FA, ELnain G, Hamad RS, Bayoumy EM (2017). Efficacy of soluble glycoprotein fraction from Allium sativum purified by size exclusion chromatography on murine Schistosomiasis mansoni. Microbial pathogenesis, 107:243-248

Ibrahim R, Rabab Z, Gehan E, Mohamed E, Mohamed E, Eman A (2016). Comparison between modified acid fast staining and antigen detection assay as diagnostic techniques for Cryptosporidium parvum. World Journal of Medical Sciences, 13:72-78

Imam MM, Mahana NA, Rabee IA, Amer NM, El Amir A (2016). Schistosoma-Specific 26 Kda Protein for a Diagnosis of Acute and Chronic Schistosomiasis. Journal of The Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 240:1-10

Ismail S, Ali I, Amer N, Fahmy Z, Azmy M, Magdy M (2016) Susceptibility of Blastocystis hominis to monolaurine (Lauric acid), lactoferine (Lactobacillus acidophillus) and metronidazole: An in vitro and in vivo studies African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 10:14-25

Mahmood NM, Ramadan NF, Hassan SM, Sabry H, Magdy MM (2016). Therapeutic effect of Phoenix dactylifera against cryptosporidiosis in immunocompromised mice. Global Advanced Research Journal of Medical Sciences, 5:088-095

Khater MM, El-Sayed SH, Yousof H-AS, Mahmoud SS, El-Dib N, El-Badry AA (2017). Anti-Cryptosporidium efficacy of Olea europaea and Actinidia deliciosa in a neonatal mouse model. Kasr Al Ainy Medical Journal, 23:32

El-Sayed SH, Neimat Amer SI, Ali I, Rizk E, Magdy M, El-Badry AA-M (2017). In Vitro and in Vivo anti-blastocystis ffficacy of olive leaf extract and bee pollen compound. Parasitology, 12:33-44

Mansy SS et al. (2017). Potential ultrastructure predicting factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in HCV infected patients. Ultrastructural Pathology 41:209-226

Sakran T, El-Shahawy G, Shalaby M, Sabry H, Matooq P, Elmallah A (2017). Detection rates of waterborne protozoa in water sources from Fayoum Governorate. Parasitologists United Journal 10:30-38

Aly I, Taher EE, Gehan E, Sayed HE, Mohammed FA, Hamad RS, Bayoumy EM (2018). Advantages of bioconjugated silica-coated nanoparticles as an innovative diagnosis for human toxoplasmosis. Acta tropica, 177:19-24