In the near future, plans for the Department include the development of three core facilities which will act in tandem to fuel performance in the Department.

1)    The first core facility will be performing Immunodiagnosis of endemic diseases and their consecutive complications with high quality including: development and commercialization of immunodiagnostic kits for endemic diseases by employment of our MAb in different diagnostic techniques such as sandwich ELISA, nanoparticle-modified sandwich ELISA, and new kit gold nanoparticle in an immunostrip assay.

2)    The second core facility will be enforcement and developing a suitable environment for research in the following fields:

-      Immunohistochemistry.

-      Tissue Culture including:

·     Tissue engineering.

·     Stem cell research

·     Monoclonal antibody production.

·     Production of cell lines.

-      Nanotechnology.

-      Molecular biology.

-      Assessment of cytotoxicity of different anticancer compounds.

3)    The third core facility is providing training courses for Egyptian and non-Egyptian trainees interested in MAb production, cell culture, and other associated techniques.


 The mission of the Immunology Department is the development of a research environment in which a broad range of interdisciplinary work is carried out to cope with the new era of the Immunology and stem cell biology.

 In particular, the Department targets:

  •  The immunodiagnosis of endemic diseases (viral and parasitic), the assessment of immune response to endemic infections and their associated  morbidity changes, and tackling immunological approaches for the management of endemic diseases and their hepatic and urinary complications.

  Head of the Laboratory

Prof. Eman Gamal El-Din El-Ahwany  





  Former Heads And Staff Members

Former Heads 

Emeritus Prof. Zeinab Ahmed Shaker

Emeritus Prof. Hanaa Ismail Hassanein

Late Prof. Azza El Bassiouny

Emeritus Prof. Zeinab Abou Bakr Demerdash

Emeritus Prof.  Kesmat Mohamed Maher

Emeritus Prof. Faten Salah El-Din Mahmoud


Staff Members 

Emeritus Prof. Moustafa Abdel Haleem Kadah

Emeritus Prof. Hanan  Mohamed Gamal El-Din El-Baz

Emeritus Prof.  Mohamed Youssef Mohamed El-Mohandes

Emeritus Prof.  Manal Mohamed Kamel

Emeritus Prof.  Salwa Hassan Mohamed

Emeritus Prof.  Mona Mohamed Kamel Zoheiry

Emeritus Prof.  Wafaa Abd El Fattah Mansour

Prof.  Faten Moustafa Nagy

Prof.  Eman Gamel El-Din El-Ahwany

Researcher Marwa Hassan Mohammed

Researcher Shimaa Attiah Hassan

Associate Researcher Engy Mohsen Abdel-Moniem

Associate Researcher Ali Ahmad Baioumi

Associate Researcher Dina Samir Abdel-Hady

Associate Researcher Noha Mohamed Abd El Rahman

Associate Researcher  Sherihan Mohammed Al Motawakel

Late Resident Shimaa Abd El Sattar Abbas

Resident Mohamad Hussien Elzallat

Resident Hadeel Khaled Mohammed

Resident Samaa Abdallah Bardisi

Resident Sarah Elsayed Gouda

Resident Nourhan Khalil Abo El-Ela

Resident Rawan Mohsen Mousa

Specialist Sarah Maher

  Field of Research

 The strategy of  Immunology Department constitutes an integrated part of the general strategy of TBRI,  targeting immunodiagnosis of endemic diseases (viral and parasitic), assessment of immune response to endemic infections and their associated  morbidity changes, and tackling immunological approaches for management of endemic diseases and their hepatic and urinary complications with special stress on the following targets:

I-Immunodiagnosis of endemic diseases and their consecutive complications:

A- Immunodiagnosis of parasitic infections: 

§  The detection of specific circulating anti- parasitic IgG4 improved sensitivity and specificity of immunodiagnosis of schistosomiasis, fascioliasis1, and filariasis, and can be used as screening test in endemic areas.

§  The use of affinity purified fractions of parasitic antigens e.g. a Con-A purified hydatid glycoprotein fraction, and affinity purified Fasciola worm antigen fraction, improved immunodiagnosis of human hydatidosis and fascioliasis2.

§  Production of MAbs against parasitic Antigens:

-      S. mansoni soluble egg Ag3,4

-      S. haematobium soluble egg Ag5,6

-      S. mansoni worm tegument Ag7

-      F. gigantica crude worm Ag8

-      F. gigantica ex/sec Ag8

-      W. bancrofti worm extract9

§  Establishment of antigen detection immunoassays (sandwich ELISA, dot ELISA and latex agglutination test) using our MAbs as diagnostic probes for circulating parasitic antigens in patients' sera and/ or excreta (urine or stool). The following MAb-based sandwich ELISA systems were developed showing high sensitivity and specificity rates:

§  Schistosoma antigen assay (90% sensitivity and 95% specificity)3.

§  Fasciola coproantigen assay (96% sensitivity and 97% specificity)10.

§  W. bancrofti antigen assay (95% sensitivity and 96% specificity)7, 9.

§  Development of antigen detection kit for diagnosis of active schistosomiasis and monitoring of cure on pre-commercial level.

B- Immunodiagnosis of hepatitis viruses:

§  Glial fibrillary acidic protein could represent a more useful marker than α-SMA of early activation of HSCs in CHC patients and seems to be an early indicator of hepatic fibrogenesis11.

§  Circulating miR-138 could serve as a non-invasive biomarker for the detection of early fibrosis. Also, miR-138 and miR-143 could be specific biomarkers for indicating the late stage of liver fibrosis12.

§  miR-122 might be a useful predictor for virological responses to treatment with PEG-interferon plus ribavirin therapy in patients with HCV13.

§  In Silico design and experimental validation of siRNAs targeting conserved regions of hepatitis C virus genotype 414.

C-Tissue typing:

The feasibility of using the following immunomolecular markers and biomarkers as predictive or prognostic markers for HCC:

§  HLA-DRB1*:

a)DRB1*03 allele: predominance of this allele in HCV-infected patients reflects the influence of this allele on susceptibility to infection.

b)      DRB1*04 and DRB1*14 allele: Identification of these alleles in HCV-infected patients stresses the importance of periodic follow up of these patients for early signs of carcinogenesis.

D-Evaluation of efficacy of medicinal herbs or drugs in malignant cell lines:


§  Hepatic carcinoma in vitro study: the methanolic extract of curcuma longa rhizomes inhibited hepatic carcinoma cell line (HEPG2) growth via apoptotic changes. This, the rhizome of Curcuma longa could be used as a natural source of anticancer drugs15.

§  The bioactive secondary metabolites of Vitex Agnuscastus extract can induce apoptosis in the H2PG cell line through caspase – activation. The antiproliferative and apoptotic properties of V. Agnuscastus extracts would suggest its use as an adjuvant in cancer therapy16.

II- Predication of malignant transformation:


A-     Assessment of the molecular and biomarkers associated with HCC:

The use of biomarkers, genetic and epigenetic markers as either predictive or prognostic markers in HCV-induced liver fibrosis and liver cancer:

  • TGF-beta1 plays a role in hepatic cell damage following HCV infection thus stressing the usefulness of this cytokine as a prognostic marker for liver cell injury. However, COX-2 is a predictive marker for malignant transformation and has a role in the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis, but not in the advanced stages. The combined expression of both factors in HCV-related HCC suggests their synergistic action in the pathophysiology of hepatocarcinogenesis17.

§  Circulating and hepatic Fas expression in chronic hepatitis C infection illustrates the mechanism of liver injury caused by death receptors throughout the multistep process of fibrosis/carcinogenesis. Not only the higher degree of hepatic fibrosis, but also the lower expression of Fas protein, is correlated with the increased incidence of HCC18.

§  Histone H3 mRNA: Increased expression and nuclear-cytoplasmic shift denotes carcinogenic changes in chronic hepatitis C19.

§  Upregulation of Fas in chronic hepatitis C infection and of c-myc & EGFR in malignant transformation were used as progenestic markers in HCV-induced HCC. c-myc expression may obstruct the induction of apoptosis of HCC cells and lead to uncontrolled cell growth20.

§  Down-regulation of intrahepatic CD16+ and CD56+ immune cells in chronic hepatitis C virus infection and HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma can be used as predictive and prognostic markers in HCV-induced liver cancer21.

§  The measurement of serum levels of miRNA-122a, miRNA-125a, miRNA-139, miRNA-145 and miRNA-199a can help to differentiate HCC from CHC and LC. Also, they suggest that serum miR-122 might serve as a novel and potential non-invasive biomarker for HCV-induced HCC13.

  • The combination of Sorafenib (SOR)  and Bio-A leads to synergistic cytotoxicity in the HCC cell line, HepG2, via interfering with cell cycle, enhancing mitochondrial apoptosis signaling and thus hindering cell proliferation. This study introduces a novel combination, where Bio-A synergistically enhanced the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of SOR in HCC cells, which could serve as a potential effective regimen for treatment22.
  • The development of an improved in silico experimental triage process to design efficacious and specific siRNAs that targeted highly conserved regions of HCV genomes. Antiviral potencies were systematically assessed in HCV genotype 1 and 2 replicon cell lines and with a patient-derived infectious HCV genotype 4 isolate.  The predicted outstanding antiviral potency of the selected siRNA confirmed a high barrier to resistance. The in silico-designed siRNA might be a valuable antiviral agent and could be considered for further development as a chronic hepatitis C therapy14.


B- Assessment of molecular and biomarkers associated with cancer   bladder:

§   The use of urinary and serum genetic biomarker as non invasive technique for early detection of malignancy and prediction of tumour behaviour.

§   The high incidence of P53 and c-erbB-2 with low expression of bcl-2 could be used as early predictive markers in chronic schistosomal cystitis.   

§   The high level of sFas in chronic cystitis patients associated with schistosomiasis could be a predictor marker for malignant transformation in those patients.

§   Angiogenic markers (VEGF bfGF, TGF-α, TGF-β) are valuable prognostic parameters especially in high risk bladder cancer patients who need continuous follow up.

§   Urinary markers (BTA + nuclear matrix protein (NMP) could be used as noninvasive biomarkers for screening of malignancy in mass population, while, hyaluronic acid + nitric oxide could detect patients at high risk for more intensive investigations.

§   Fibronectin could be used as a predictive biomarker for tumour behavior and clinical outcome as it increases with tumour invasion.

III Immunotherapy:

A. Establishment of tissue engineering unit for stem cell culture and   engraftment into hepatic patients as a new line for management of liver cell failure.

B. Myoblast cell culture as a preliminary step for their engraftment in bladder cervix sphincter as a replacement therapy for urine incontinence.

C. Establishment of a cord blood stem cell bank as a source of allogenic stem cells for treatment of complications of endemic diseases.

D. Establishment of a Defined Protocol for in vitro Trans-differentiation of Cord Blood (CB) Unrestricted Somatic Stem Cells (USSCs) into Hepatocyte-like Cells.



E. Induction of Hepatic Regeneration in an Experimental Model Using the Hepatocyte–like Cells Differentiated from in vitro Cultured CB USSCs.

1. A pilot study for Induction of hepatic regeneration in a small scale of an experimental model for hepatic fibrosis/cirrhosis in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, and CCL4 induced cirrhotic hamsters26.      

2. Induction of hepatic regeneration in our planned experimental models guided by the results of the pilot study.

3. Induction of hepatic regeneration in a CCl4 model using hepatocyte-cells from USSCs cultured and differentiated in either 2D or 3D culture systems.

4. Studying the effect of transplantation of hepatocyte-like cells in the experimental model on liver function and biochemical markers of liver fibrosis, liver pathology, as well as repopulation of the liver by the newly transformed hepatocyte-like cells.


F.    Establishment of the Use of CB-USSCs as a Future Candidate for Cellular  Therapy of Hepatic Failure on Experimental Level.


G.   Gene therapy:

§  The modulation of the EMT markers could be promising as potential therapeutic agents. Further searching for the genetic factors that control the expression of EMT markers would be a powerful strategy to treat liver fibrosis at the genetic level either through the arrest of EMT or the introduction of EMT23.

§  The target genes of the microRNAs control almost all the hallmarks of liver cancer which can be used as therapeutic targets in cancer treatment24.

§  New ultrastructure observations which may be of value in predicting HCC and identifying the appropriate patient for surveillance. This finding has supported the speculation of the malignant potentiality of liver stem/progenitor cell and the impact of HSCs on this process25.

  Running Techniques

1)  Immunodiagnostics laboratory 

·        Diagnosis of Parasitic Infection (ELISA):

  Detection of circulating anti-schistosome antibodies.

  Detection of circulating schistosome antigen.

   Detection of circulating anti-Fasciola hepatica antibodies.

   Detection of circulating anti-E. granulosus antibodies.

·        Detection of Autoantibodies:

  Anti-nuclear antibodies.

·        Detection of Hepatitis Markers.

 Detection of HB surface antigen.

  Detection of circulating anti-HCV antibodies

·        Enzyme-linked immune-electrophoresis transfers blot (EITB).

·        SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS- PAGE).

·        Immuno-diffusion.

·        Immunofluorescence.

·        Immunohistochemistry and immunolocalization.

2)  Tissue engineering units:

·        Isolation of different types of stem cells (MSCs & USSCs) from bone marrow and cord blood.

·        Stem cells characterization by flowcytometry, and gene expression analysis by real-time PCR.

·        Induction of differentiation of stem cells into osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages.

·        Experimental treatment of hepatic fibrosis (induced by CCl4 and Schistosoma infection) by stem cells. 

3)  Monoclonal antibody production unit:

·        Tissue culture techniques:

  Basics of tissue culture.

  Monoclonal antibody production by hybridoma technology against different parasitic antigens (Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium, Fasciola, Filaria, and Hydatid). 

·        Characterization of monoclonal antibody:

   Isotype characterization.

    SDS and Immunoblotting.

    Polyclonal antibody production in rats.

   Mononuclear cell separation.  


·        Purification:

     Ammonium sulfate.

    Boric acid.

    Conjugation of MAb by HRP.

   Development of immunodiagnostic kits (ELISA) for endemic diseases using our own monoclonal antibodies. 

4)  Molecular unit:

   Basics of molecular biology.

    RNA, DNA and microRNA extraction.

    DNA hypo/ hyper-methylation.

     Gene expression analysis by real-time PCR.

   Detection of  serum epigenetics markers using RT-PCR

5)  Experimental animal unit:

Establishment of HCC murine model.

  Laboratory Structure and Facilities

The Immunology Department consists of a Central Immunology Research Laboratory and a "Tissue Culture Unit".

The Central Immunology Research Laboratory consists of the following units:

-  Immunodiagnostics laboratory (ELISA, immunofluorescent technique, agglutination tests, etc.).

-  Immunochemistry laboratory (electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, Isoelectric focusing,PCR, affinity and ion-exchange chromatography, etc.).

-   The Tissue Culture Unit includes:

·        A preparatory laboratory.

·        Tissue engineering units.

·        GMP unit for stem cells.

·        Monoclonal production unit.

-         Molecular unit includes:

  • Real-time PCR.

List of the most important equipment:

-      Laminar flow cabinets.

-      CO2 incubators (5%).

-      Liquid nitrogen containers and controlled rate freezing apparatus.

-      Microscopes (inverted and fluorescent).

-      DNA and protein electrophoresis and electroelution systems.

-      Transblot cell.

-      PCR apparatus.

-      UV trans-illuminator and UV camera.

-      ELISA reader.

-      Autoclave, ovens, incubators, shaking incubators and water baths.

-      Vertical and horizontal deep freezers (-20 degrees Celsius and -40 degrees Celsius).

-      Centrifuges (cooling and ultracentrifuge).

-      Bi-distillator.

-      Digital balances.

-      Electric tissue homogenizer, sonicator and lyophilizer.

-      Two computers are available for research work at the Immunology Department.


  Training facilities

 Fields of training:

-  Monoclonal antibody production.

-  Molecular immunology.

- Tissue culture.

- Stem cells.

- Epigenetic field.

-Serodiagnostic techniques (ELISA,Immunoblotting).


The Immunology Department at Theodor Bilharz Research Institute is considered as one of the Centers of Excellency for the production of monoclonal antibodies and their application in immunoassays for early diagnosis of active parasitic infection and monitoring of cure.


The research team at the Immunology Department, TBRI, is highly qualified and has vast experience and skills in the field of immunodiagnosis, characterization and purification of proteins, cell cloning, production, characterization and applications of monoclonal antibodies in immunoassays. Several international projects with relevant technologies have been carried out at the Immunology Department during the last few years.

  Scope of Services

 1-    Diagnosis of Parasitic Infection (ELISA)

- Detection of circulating anti-schistosome antibodies.
- Detection of circulating schistosome antigen.
- Detection of circulating anti-Fasciola gigantica antibodies.
- Detection of circulating anti-E. granulosus antibodies.


2-    Detection of Autoantibodies
- Anti-nuclear antibodies. (ELISA)
- Anti-DNA antibodies.
- Anti-smooth muscle antibodies.
- Anti-neutrophil antibodies.
- Anti-mitochondrial antibodies.
- Liver/kidney microsomal antibodies.


3-    Detection of Hepatitis Markers (ELISA)
- Detection of circulating anti-HAV antibodies.
- Detection of HB surface antigen.
- Detection of circulating anti-HBc antibodies (IgM & IgG)
- Detection of HBe antigen.
- Detection of circulating anti-HBe antibodies. 
- Detection of anti-HBs antibodies
- Detection of circulating anti-HCV antibodies


   4- Detection of Tumor Markers (ELISA)
          - CA 19.9
          - CA 50
          - CA 242
          - CA 15.3


Pilot Study of Anticancer Potential of Some Herbal Medicine. PI: Prof. Hanaa Hassanein(2008-2010), funded by TBRI .

Autologus Hematopoietic Stem Cells in The Treatment of End-Stage Liver Disease: A Pilot Clinical Trial conducted in TBRI. PI: Prof. Dr. Hanan El-Baz (2009-2011), funded by TBRI.

Establishment of Specific Operating Procedures (SOP’s) for Human Myoblast Culture.  PI:  Prof. Dr. Hanan El-Baz (2009-2013), funded by TBRI.

Processing and Cryopreservation of Cord Blood: A preliminary Step Towards the Establishment of TBRI National Stem Cell Bank. PI: Prof. Dr. Zeinab Demerdash (2009-2014), funded by TBRI.

Hepatogenic Differentiation Potentials of Human Mesenchymal   Stem Cells: An in-vitro Study.PI : Prof. Dr. Hanan El-Baz (2010 to date), funded by TBRI.

The Generation of Cord Blood-Derived Unrestricted Somatic Stem Cells and Their Differentiation into Hepatocyte-like Cells Pave the Way for Liver Regeneration.  PI: Prof. Zeinab Demerdash, (2010-2015), funded by the Science & Technology Development Fund (STDF).

Theodor Bilharz into European research Area" THEBERA” project. PI: Sanaa Botros (2010-2015), funded by European Union (EU), as an ERA-WIDE FP7.

Nanoparticles as a Delivery System for Targeting Schistosmiasis and Fascioliasis: A pilot study.  Financed by the Science Technology Research Centre (STRC), the American University in Cairo and TBRI, (2010-2011).

A therapeutic Trial for HCV Infection Using Small Interfering RNA (siRNA) Targeting the Viral Genome.  Financed by the Biology Department, the American University in Cairo and Science and Technology Development Fund (STDF), Academic of Scientific Research and Technology, (2010-2014).

MiRNAs as a novel therapeutic tool in HCV-induced liver fibrosis. funded by the American University in Cairo, (2011-2012)

Development of easy to use and affordable biomarkers as diagnostics for types II and III  diseases . PI: Prof. Dr. Hanan El-Baz (2016 - to date).

Circulating markers related to influx of the liver with extrahepaticmyo-fibroblast progenitor cells as predictors of HCV-induced hepatic fibrosis and carcinogenesis. PI: Prof. Dr. Mona Zoheiry (2011-2017), funded by TBRI.

Novel Diagnostic and Therapeutic Tools in Murine Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Pilot Study. PI: Prof. Eman El-Ahwany (2012-2017), funded by TBRI.

Anticancer Potential of Some Medicinal Herbs on both Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Squamous Cell lines. PI: Prof.  Hanaa Hassanein, (2012-2015) funded by TBRI,.

Transplantation of Hepatogenic Differentiated Mesenchymal Stem   Cells versus Adult Hepatocytes in Experimental Chronic Liver Insult Model: A Comparative Study. PI: Prof. Hanan El-Baz, (2013- to date), funded by TBRI,

Culture of hybridoma cell lines in serum- free media using spinner flasks: A step forward for large scale production of monoclonal antibodies of high quality. PI:  Prof. Faten Salah, (2009-2012), funded by TBRI.

Effect of repeated passaging and cell density on proliferation and differentiation potential of cord blood Mesenchymal stem cells.  PI: Prof. Kesmat Maher, (2014- to date), financed by TBRI.

The differentiation potential of human cord blood- derived mesenchymal stem cells into functional hepatocyte-like cells on nanofibrous scaffold. PI: Prof. Zeinab Demerdash, (2014- to date), funded by TBRI.

Mesenchymal stem cells with or without targeted gold coated magnetic nanoparticles as a novel therapeutic tool in hepatocellular carcinoma murine model: A pilot study. PI: Prof. Wafaa A. Mansour (2014- to date), funded by TBRI.

Prediction of miRNA Target Genes Involved in Liver Cancer Pathways and its Validation. PI: Prof. Faten Nagy (2014-2017), funded by TBRI.

Circulating MicroRNAs as Diagnostic and Prognostic Tools in HCV-induced Liver Fibrosis. PI: Prof. Mona Zoheiry (2017-2019), funded by TBRI.

SAT-2, SAT-3, ALU and LINE1 hypo methylation as an early diagnostic and prognostic marker for HCV related hepatocellular carcinoma. PI: Prof. Moataz Siam (Gastroenterology Department), (2015-2017) funded by TBRI.

Development of easy to use and affordable biomarkers as diagnostics for Types II and III diseases. PI: Prof. Hanan El-Baz.

DNA Methylation and microRNA Crosstalk as epigenetic Prognostic Biomarker for HCV Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma. PI: Prof. Faiza El-Essawy (Hematology Department), (2017-2019), funded by TBRI.

Long non-coding RNA as a novel non-invasive diagnostic tool for HCV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.  PI: Prof. Faiza El-Essawy (Hematology Department), (2017-2019), funded by TBRI.

X. Co-operative Projects:

Nanoparticles as a delivery system for targeting Schistosmiasis and Fascioliasis: A pilot study.  Financed by the Science Technology Research Centre (STRC), the American University in Cairo (AUC) and TBRI, (2010-2011). PI: Prof. Suher Zada (AUC) & Prof: Ibrahim Rabie (TBRI), CO-PI: Prof. Eman El-Ahwany.

A therapeutic trial for HCV infection using small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the viral genome.  funded by Technology Development Fund (STDF), Academic of Scientific Research and Technology, (2010-2014). PI: Prof. Mahmoud El Hefnawi (National research Centre), Participant: Prof. Eman El-Ahwany.

MiRNAs as a novel therapeutic tool in HCV-induced liver fibrosis. funded by the American University in Cairo, (2011-2012). PI: Prof. Suher Zada (AUC), CO-PI: Prof. Eman El-Ahwany.

Assessment of potential synergistic or antagonistic toxicity mechanisms during co–exposition of in vitro models towards cerium dioxide nanoparticles and environmental chemicals/ pharmaceuticals. funded by the German Egyptian Research Fund (GER), (2017-2019). PI: Prof. Mohamed Shemis (TBRI), CO-PI: Prof. Eman El-Ahwany.


Mahmoud FS., EL-Bassiouny A., Rabia I., Demerdash ZA., Roshdy M., Shaker ZA. (2006): Human Schistosomiasis haematobium: Effective diagnosis of active infection using a pair of monoclonal antibodies against soluble egg antigen. Parasitol Res ., 99:528-533.

El-Bassiouni A, Nosseir M, Zoheiry M, El-Ahwany E, Ghali A and El- Bassiouni N (2006). Immunohistochemical expression of CD95 (Fas), c-myc, and epidermal growth factor receptor in hepatitis C virus infection, cirrhotic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. APMIS, 114: 420-427.

El-Bassiouny A, Mohamed S, Mahmoud FS, Zoheiry M, Mansour W, Diab T, Rabia I, Safwat W , Demerdash Z (2007). Detection of fasciola-speceficcoproantigens by ELISA using monoclonal antibodies. Egypt J med sci,  28: 971-983.

 El-Bassiouny A, Zoheiry M, Nosseir M, El-Ahwany E, Ibrahim R and El-Bassiouni N (2007). Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and transforming growth factor-beta1 in HCV-induced chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. MedGenMed, 9 (3): 45-63.

El-Bassiouny A, Zoheiry M, El-Ahwany E, Salah F, Nosseir M, Omran Z, Atta R, El-Bassiouny N (2008). Circulating and hepatic Fas expression in HCV-induced chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. MedGenMed, 10 (6): 130-148.

El Bassiouny A., Abou-Shousha T., Moussa M., El-Ahwany E., El-Bassiouni N, Maher K., Galli A., Youssef M., Zada S (2009):Hepatic mRNA expression of histone(H3): An early predictor of tumorgenic changes in chronic hepatitis C. Arch Med Sci.,4:506-512.

El Bassiouny A. , Abo El-Hassan S., Moussa M, El-Ahwany E.,  Helal E., Taha A.,  Helmy AH., kamal M., El-Bassiouni N.(2009): Down-regulation of intrahepatic CD16+ and CD56+ immune cells in chronic hepatitis c viruses infection and HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.Arch Med Sci., 5(3):321-328.

Zakaria S, Youssef M, Moussa M., Akl M, El-Ahwany E, El-Raziky M, Mostafa   O, Helmy AH, El-Hindawi A (2010): Value of alpha-smooth muscle actin and glial fibrillary acidic protein in predicting early hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Archives of Medical Sciences, 6 (3): 356-365.

Demerdash Z., Diab T. , Aly I R, Mohamed S. , Mahmoud F., Zoheiry  M., Mansour W., Mohy E., Attia M., El-BassiounyA. (2011): Diagnostic efficacy of   monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of Fasciola gigantica excretory/secretory antigens in both serum and stool. Parasite Vectors, 4: 176.

Amer M., Elhefnawi M., El-Ahwany E., Awad AF.,  Gawad NA., Zada S., Tawab FM. (2014): Hsa-miR-195 targets PCMT1 in hepatocellular carcinoma that increases tumor life span. Tumour Biol., 35(11):11301-9.

Zoheiry M., El-Ahwany E. (2015): Role of epithelial mesenchymal transition in hepatic fibrogenesis. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. (JESP), 45(2): 357 -364.   

El-Hefnawi M, TaeKyuKim, Kamar M, SaehongMin, Hassan N., El-Ahwany E., Heeyoung Kim, Zada S, Amer M, Marc P. Windisch (2016): In Silico Design and Experimental Validation of siRNAs Targeting Conserved Regions of Multiple Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes. PLOS ONE, 11(7):e015921.

El-Ahwany E, Nagy F, Zoheiry M, Shemis M, Nosseir M, Taleb HA, El Ghannam M, Atta R, Zada S (2016). Circulating miRNAs as predictor markers for activation of hepatic stellate cells and progression of HCV-induced liver fibrosis. Electron Physician, 8(1):1804-1810. 

Abdel-Lateef E., Mahmoud F., Hammam O., El-Ahwany E., El-Wakil E., Kandil S., Abu-Taleb H., El-Sayed M., Hassenein H. (2016): Bioactive chemical constituents of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes extract inhibit the growth of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).Acta Pharmaceutical, 66: 1-13.

Abdel-Lateef E., Hammam O., Mahmoud FS., Atta SA, El-SayedMM., Hassenein HI. (2016): Induction of apoptosis in HepG2 by Vitexagnus-castus L. leaves extracts and identification of their active chemical constituents by LC-ESI-MS. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease 6(7):539-548.

El-Ahwany E., Zoheiry M., Mourad L., Abu-Taleb H., Nagy F., Atta R., Hassan M., Zada S (2017): Serum MicroRNAs as biomarkers for HCV-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Egyptian Patients. Pathology and Oncology Research.

Youssef MM., Tolba M., Badawy NN, Andrew W. Liu, El-Ahwany E., Khalifa AE., Zada S., Abdel-Naim AB. (2016): Novel combination of sorafenib and biochanin-A synergistically enhances the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Scientific Reports, 6:30717.

Mansy S, El-Ahwany E, Mahmoud S, Hassan S, Seleem M, Abdelaal A, Helmy A, Zoheiry M, AdelFattah A, Hassanein M (2017): Potential ultrastructure predicting factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in HCV infected patients. Ultrastructural Pathology.

Manal M Kamel, Hanan El-Baz, Zeinab Demerdash Salwa Hassan, Faten Salah,Wafaa Mansour, Olfat Hammam, Shimaa Atta, Ali Bayoumi, Marwa Hassan, Soheir Mahmoud (2017). Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Hepatogenic Differentiation Potential Ameliorate Chronic Liver Affection in Experimental Models. Clinical and Experimental Medicine.